Previous Section Index Page Following Section



Alternate Collation.

This term refers to the (optional) selection (on Screen 4) of alternate numbers of primary units which are to be combined within a secondary case, with all units being arranged in the same orientation.

See Collation (below).


The final unit which is to be palletised. This may be defined by the user (in Palletise mode) or may be constructed from primary / sub-primary units.

Case Constraints.

When a secondary case has been sized by the Collation module the external dimensions will be compared with constraints that will exclude unsuitable cases from the results.

Constraints are specified by you for each packaging style on the Packaging Style screen (Selected from Screen 3) and they can be changed by amending the details shown.

Case Sizing.

The external dimensions of a CASE are calculated for a collation of PRIMARY UNITS as follows:


    the collation base dimension

 +  material thickness x No. of thicknesses

 +  total of gaps between each PRIMARY UNIT

 +  constraint gap allowance  +  s/wrap and seal allowance (length only)


    the collation height dimension

 +  material thickness x No. of thicknesses  +  headspace.

The result is rounded up to the nearest millimetre on certain reports.


The arrangement of primary units within a secondary case with all the units oriented in the same direction. The number of primary unit tiers within the case is governed by the stability constraint and by any restriction imposed by the user on the number of tiers which can be used. This value is specified in the packing style screen. Each tier will be identical to the first. A three dimensional diagram may be seen on the computer screen if required and the collation for each case is printed on both the 'Summary of Results' and the 'Palletisation Specification' reports.

Collation Tiers.

The number of layers of primary units within a secondary case.

PALLETMANAGER will investigate every collation within the size, stability and number of tiers constraints imposed by you on the packaging style specification.

When the FIXED VOLUME module is being used the number of alternative collations that will be examined can be further reduced by entering the maximum number of tiers that you will be prepared to consider. 

Conveyor Width and Radius.

When generating secondary units for a given number of primary cases, details of the conveyor to be used can be entered and held on the conveyor details standard value file. A width of zero indicates that no conveyor is in use.

PALLETMANAGER will not attempt to palletise a secondary unit which will not travel along the conveyor or around its tightest curve without overhanging.


A printer report available in PALLETISE and Collation modes which provides views from all four sides of the pallet stack.

Excluded Cases.

When PALLETMANAGER has sized a case for a particular collation the external dimensions are checked against the pack constraints for the selected style of packaging.  Where any constraint is exceeded, this case will be excluded from analysis.

Details of excluded cases can be viewed from Screen 5.

Flip Over Image.

Intermediate layers of cases are a flip-over image of the first layer (in an axis parallel to the pallet length), to provide interlocking.

Grid Packing.

This term is used to represent a packing in which the items packed (e.g. Cylinders) form distinct rows and columns within the collation. (See Nesting)

Height/Base Stability Ratio.

This is a pack constraint that will exclude any collation where the external height dimension of the secondary case is greater than the smallest base dimension multiplied by the value held in the packaging style record.





An option on Screen 6, the two / three dimensional pallet layout display, allows the placement on the pallet to be adjusted horizontally (on the screen) so at to 'even out' any gaps in a layout. A similar option to move vertically (on the screen) can also be selected. The effect of any movements applied can be removed by reselecting the appropriate layout number

JPG files.

A common graphics format used when displaying images on an Intranet / Internet. Can be viewed using a web browser such as explorer. Also used in the display of a company Logo on reports (see Appendix 1) or for display of product images in Collation mode (Section 6)


An arrangement of a single layer of cases on a pallet or within a tray..

PALLETMANAGER uses a variety of techniques to develop pallet loading patterns which make the maximum use of the pallet loading area. The number of layouts which provide this maximum utilisation will depend upon the shape and size of the case base and on the load area of the pallet.  Sometimes there will be only one possible layout but at other times there may be hundreds (usually if the case base is nearly square). 

The choice of an acceptable layout depends upon your own requirements, and the range offered by PALLETMANAGER will meet most needs.

Mirror Image.

Intermediate layers of cases are a mirror image (in an axis parallel to the pallet width) of the first layer to provide interlocking.

Mixed Layer Mode

When selected allows for the inter-mixing of layers of different types on the pallet. See Section 11.


An arrangement of cylinders in which adjacent items do NOT form distinct rows and columns. A detailed description of the types of nesting pattern is given in Section 10.

Overhang - Actual

Layouts are centralised on the pallet so that the actual overhang on a particular edge will be half of the calculated total displayed on the Layout Screen (Screen 6).

Overhang - Long Side.

This entry (on Screen 3) is the TOTAL amount by which the load area length considered by PALLETMANAGER exceeds the larger pallet dimension.

Overhang - Short Side.

Is the TOTAL amount by which the load area width considered by PALLETMANAGER exceeds the shorter pallet dimension. In either case a negative sign indicates dimension(s) less than the stated pallet length and/or width.


Overhang Maximum.

The maximum amount by which a case layout can be allowed to exceed a pallet edge dimension.  As layouts are centralised the maximum should be twice the amount allowed for one edge.

Packaging Material Area.

The area of packaging material in square metres is calculated according to the equations given in Section 4 of this manual.

Palletisation Specification.

The printout produced at the end of your PALLETMANAGER investigation which can be used as all or part of the specification issued as an instruction to the loading department.  

PDF Format.

A format devised by Adobe Systems for holding and displaying textual and graphics material.

Percentage Fill.

The 'Summary of Results' report shows the percentage of load area and pallet volume filled by the secondary case.  The total area and volume of the pallet (including maximum allowable overhang) is used for this calculation.

Primary Unit.

Any cuboid or cylindrical shaped item that has to be packed into a secondary case.

Cylindrical shapes must be expressed in three dimensions and the system will assume that these units are cuboid.  "Nesting" of cylindrical units is also catered for.  The primary units must be identical.


This option, displayed on Screen 6, the two and three dimensional layout display, allows the user to select a stack made up of identical layers. Secondary Unit.

The outer case sized by the Collation module or an existing case that you wish to palletise.


The term used in Tertiary mode for the smallest individual unit. These are collated to form primary units, then collated again to form the final case.

Tertiary Mode

The two stage collation of sub-primary units to form a case. Sub-primaries are firstly collated to form a primary, and then collated once again to form the case.  


Refers to the number of boxes or cartons stored on a layer / tier (Ti) and the number of layers high these can be stacked in the pallet (Hi)



Top-Layer Option.

When selected, this permits the top layer of the pallet may consist of cases placed on their side.

Tray or Tote.

Aside from the use of this term for designs of cardboard trays used to hold product, these terms are used for units (such as those popular in major stores) used to hold product in stackable re-usable units.

Underhang (actual).

Layouts are centralised on the pallet so that the amount by which the layout is inside the pallet edge will be half of the calculated total displayed on Layout Screen 6. Underhang is shown as a negative value.

Underhang (minimum)

The minimum by which a pallet layout can be allowed to sit inside a pallet edge. As layouts are centralised the minimum should be twice the amount allowed for one edge.  


A recently introduced feature whereby palletisation specifications may be made available for viewing by others on an Intranet / Internet or CD, with access being via their web browser.


Previous Section Top of Section Following Section